You have many reasons to study in Turkey. Turkey is a center of attraction for students in the world, with its natural, spiritual, transportation and physical properties specific to its cities.

Bridge to the World and Rich Culture
Education According To Your Dream Job
Comprehensive University Education
Quality Education and Economic Life


You can continue your education in Turkish, English or other languages at the universities, where high-quality education is given at a global level, and work in Turkey to develop your career. You can decide on a program according to your criteria by using the “College Finder” search tool and choose a university to continue your education.
If you want a scholarship to study in Turkey, you have many different options. However, keep in mind that the opportunities and rewards offered by the institutions granting scholarships vary. You can find out more about the available scholarships on the official website of your selected university
After choosing a university, all you have to do is to collect the required application documents. These documents may vary by university and program because universities determine their own conditions in the admission of international students. Please check the introductory page of your selected university to learn more about the required documents
You may need to meet requirements such as a university entrance exam, language score or skill test in order to be admitted to the program you chose to study in Turkey. In addition to the internationally recognized exams, universities may require you to submit the scores of the exams you took in your country or the scores of the exams carried out by your selected university. Check the detailed program page for the requirements.
Before coming to study in Turkey, you need to get a student visa from the nearest Consulate of the Republic of Turkey. Student visa procedures can take time and therefore it is important that you apply for a student visa as soon as you are admitted to your selected university.
Bilkent University in Turkey
KOC University
METU University in Turkey
Istanbul Technical University

Bilkent University in Turkeya

"Bilkent University (in Turkish, Bilkent Üniversitesi) is a private university located in Ankara, Turkey. It was founded by Prof. İhsan Doğramacı in 1984, with the aim of creating a center of excellence in higher education and research. It was the first non-profit private university established in the country."

METU University

Middle East Technical University is a public technical university located in Ankara, Turkey. The university puts emphasis on research and education in engineering and natural sciences, offering about 41 undergraduate programs within 5 faculties, 105 masters and 70 doctorate programs within 5 graduate schools.

Istanbul Technical University

Istanbul Technical University is an international technical university located in Istanbul, Turkey. It is the world's third-oldest technical university dedicated to engineering sciences as well as social sciences recently, and is one of the most prominent educational institutions in Turkey.


In 1981, in accordance with the new Higher Education Law (No. 2547), the administration of higher education in Turkey was comprehensively restructured. The system thereby became centralized, with all higher education institutions tied to the Council of Higher Education (CoHE). After this restructuring, all institutions of higher education were designed as universities. Expansion of higher education throughout the country was achieved, application to higher education was centralized, and a central university exam and placement were introduced. In addition to public universities, the first nonprofit foundation university in Turkey started to provide education for students in 1986. Since 2012, compulsory education in Turkey lasts 12 years and is divided in three stages (primary education, elemantary education and secondary education).
Pre-primary School Education :
It involves the education of children in the age group of 3 to 5 who have not reached the age of compulsory primary education, on an optional basis.
Elemantary Education :
It involves the education and training of children in the age group of 10 to 14. Elemantary education is compulsory for all citizens. It is free at the State schools and lasts four years (5th, 6th, 7nd, 8th grades). Towards the end of the elemantary school, pupils are given information about both general, vocational and technical high schools and the kinds of employment they prepare for.
Pre-primary School Education :
It involves the education and training of children in the age group of 6 to 10. Primary education is compulsory for all citizens. It is free at the State schools and lasts four years (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th grades).
Secondary Education :
It comprises high schools of a general or vocational and/or technical character giving four-year courses aiming children at the age of 14 to 17 (9th, 10th, 11th, 12th grades). Secondary education is compulsory for all citizens and is free at the State schools.
Higher Education :
After graduating from high school, students can enroll in higher education, which is compatible with the Bologna three-cycle system.
Faculty (College) :
A division conducting higher education, scholarly research and publication. Various departments and programmes may be connected to it. Students earn a Bachelor’s degree at the end of an educational programme that lasts for at least four years.
Graduate School :
An institution in universities concerned with graduate education, scholarly research and applications. Graduate schools award MA, MSc or PhD degrees.
4-year School :
An institution of higher education which is mainly concerned with providing instruction for a specific profession. It lasts for eight semesters.
Conservatory :
An institution of higher education in which artists are trained for music and the performing arts. It lasts for eight semesters.
Post-Secondary Vocational School :
An institution of higher education that is aimed at training human capacity in specific professions and provides instruction lasting four semesters.
Research and Application Center :
An institution of higher education carrying out research and applied studies to meet the applied study needs of various areas and to provide preparatory and support activities for various professional areas, with the aim of supporting education in institutions of higher education.
Associate's degree (short cycle) :
It involves the education of children in the age group of 3 to 5 who have not reached the age of compulsory primary education, on an optional basis.
Bachelor's degree (1st cycle) :
Awarded after the completion of a four-year course and 240 ECTS of study. The duration of study for dentistry, veterinary medicine and pharmacy is five years and that of medicine is six years. The qualifications in these four fields are considered to be the equivalent of a Master's degree.
Master's degree program (2nd cycle) :
Two-year program leading to the Master of Arts (MA) or Master of Sciences (MS). There are two kinds of Master's programs, with or without a thesis. The Master's with thesis program is a two-year program generally consisting courses with a minimum of 120 ECTS followed by submission of a thesis. Non-thesis programs are to be completed in one or one and a half years and call for the completion of graduate courses of a minimum 90 credits and a term project.
Doctoral degree program (3rd cycle) :
Usually an eight-semester program leading to the PhD degree. It consists of courses, with 180-240 ECTS, a proficiency exam, a dissertation proposal, a dissertation and its oral defense. After successful completion of the course work and the proficiency exam, students must submit the dissertation and defend it orally before an examining committee.
Specialization in Medicine Programs :
They are equivalent to doctoral degree programs and are carried out in the faculties of medicine, university hospitals and research and training hospitals. For the specialization in medicine, there is a competitive selection examination in various branches of medicine for those graduating from the faculties of medicine. Specialist candidates are required to submit a dissertation and defend it before an examining committee.
Proficiency in Art :
It is at least a six-semester post-Master's program in the visual and performing art branches making it equivalent to a Doctorate. It requires the presentation of an original work of art or (in music and the performing arts) a superior, creative performance.
International students who wish to undertake their undergraduate studies in Turkey must have completed their secondary education in a high school or similar institution in which the education is equivalent to that of a Turkish high school. They apply directly to the university of their choice and the university makes the selection.
nternational students who wish to pursue their graduate / post-graduate studies in Turkey also apply directly to the universities, which set their own admissions requirements. There are also various scholarship options which are available for some international students.
Tuition fees are applied differently in public and non-profit foundation universities. In public universities, tuition fees are decided and announced by the Presidencial Decree, taking into consideration the type and duration of study in different disciplines. In non-profit foundation universities, on the other hand, tuition fees are decided by the Board of Trustees of the university.
Students must pay their tuition fees for each semester before registering for the courses at the beginning of that specific semester. Both in public and non-profit foundation universities, a certain percentage of the students are admitted to the university are given diverse scholarships. These scholarships may be ful lor partial tuition waiver, merit or support scholarships. Some of these scholarships may meet academic materials, accommodation, food and beverages, and even certain allowances. In addition to this support, student assistantship and the research fellowships are another kind of support that could be helpful during the study in Turkey.


Turkey is the second country in the world in access to higher education with 94.2% schooling rate. Turkey involved in European Higher Education Area is implementing the Bologna Process in a perfect way; our Bologna report is 5 out of 5. So, the diploma you receive from a university in Turkey is recognized in all European countries! As course credit system, ECTS is applied in accordance with Europe and all students are given Diploma Supplement. In addition, Turkey is one of the most successful countries participating in the exchange programs under Erasmus +. In addition to Erasmus, there are many exchange programs in Turkey, such as Mevlana, Farabi, which support the mobility of students and lecturers.
There are 207 universities in Turkey with a population of 82 Million. The number of students is close to 8 million. With this number of students, Turkey is the first country with the most students in European Higher Education Area. There are nearly 60.000 different programs at 207 universities. In such a variety, you will definitely find a university and program for yourself.
Turkey, which has hosted many deep-rooted civilizations in its territory for thousands of years, is almost a mosaic of cultures! In this country where countless civilizations have been hosted, everyone is tolerant and respectful to each other. Turkey, where you can find a piece of your roots and perhaps can meet people who speak your language is ideal for students with its safe and peaceful environment.
Turkey, which experiences four seasons, has a reputation for its natural beauties all over the world. You can enjoy swimming and water sports in the seas that surround Turkey, you can ski in many cities in the mountains, you can enjoy rafting in the rivers and experience many extreme sports. You will feel as in the heaven in Turkey where countless beauties which shall only fascinate you with their landscape!
Based on a long history, there are thousands of historical and cultural monuments in Turkey, many of which are protected as UNESCO Cultural Heritage. Even in your daily life, you will want to keep track of the traces you may encounter frequently!
With at least one university in every city, Turkey is exactly a student-friendly country! Social clubs, sports teams and cultural events at every university bring together students and make distant geographies close. When you arrive in Turkey you will understand that the most active points of the city are the places where students socialize! Thanks to the cafes, restaurants and libraries where the students hang out, the cities live 24 hours a day.
The hospitality of Turkish people has been legendary all over the world! As a student, if you ask for help, people will do their utmost with all sincerity and friendliness. Turks will welcome you as guests and have many treats to satisfy you. Be sure you won't be miss your home here!
No matter which one of the 207 universities you go, you will experience a modern and convenient campus life, equipped with the latest technology.
Life in Turkey is more affordable than most countries. You can meet your needs, such as accommodation, food and drink, and entertainment at affordable prices. You can stay at the dormitories within or near the University campuses, or rent a house for a reasonable lease. In addition, whichever transportation you choose as a student, you will receive a ticket at a discounted price, or watch the movie in the cinema at cheaper. Turkey is also an easy to reach country because it is in the middle Asia and Europe continents. Whichever way you choose to discover Turkey, which hosts countless places of attraction, you can arrive where you want quickly and comfortably.
Several programs in Universities in Turkey are in English. Besides you can also learn Turkish, the 5th most spoken language in the world! You can get a chance to learn a new language in Turkish courses that your University will offer you, and you can be friends with people from many different cultures.


What is the official name of the country? Republic of Turkey
What is the capital? Ankara
What is the political system? Democratic, secular, social law state founded in 1923
What is the form of government? Unitary presidential constitutional republic
What is the official language? Turkish
Who is the president? Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN
What is the population? 82 million
How is the international relations? Turkey is a part of the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, AGIT and G-20. Turkey have been in Customs Union since 1995 and the negotiations on the full memberships of Turkey to EU are in progress.
What is the currency? Turkish Lira
What is the time zone? UTC +3
How is the climate? Turkey is within the mild temperature zone. The coastal areas have a temperate Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters while the inland Anatolia plateau and eastern parts have a dryer climate with hot summers and cold winters.
What is the calling code? +90
What is the internet top- level domain? .tr
What are the Long-Term Evaluation bands? 2G Capabilities are GSM 900 and GSM 1800; 3G Capabilities are UMTS 2100; 4G Capabilities are LTE 800, LTE 900, LTE 1800, LTE 2100, LTE 2600. (Please check if your mobile phone support these bands)
How is the driving direction? Right-hand lane
What is the standard voltage and the frequency? Turkey operates on 220 volts, 50 Hz, with round-prong European-style plugs that fit into recessed wall sockets /points.


1. Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oğuz Turkic and Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures), and Western culture and traditions which started with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire and continues today.This mix is a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West.As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the methods of artistic expression followed.During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts, such as museums, theatres, and architecture.Because of different historical factors playing an important role in defining the modern Turkish identity,Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be "modern" and Western, combined with the necessity felt to maintain traditional religious and historical values.
2. Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences.Many schools of music are popular throughout Turkey, from "arabesque" to hip-hop genres, as a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe, and thus contributing to a blend of Central Asian Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music.Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era, though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the effect of both Turkish folk and Western literary traditions became increasingly felt.The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols [of] the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the work of Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.
3. Architectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the region over the centuries.In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey, many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture, with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions,are to be found throughout the country, as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles, and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where buildings like the Blue Mosque and the Dolmabahçe Palace are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers,all of them representing different traditions.
3. The most popular sport in Turkey is football.Turkey's top teams include Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe, Beşiktaş and Trabzonspor. In 2000,Galatasaray cemented its role as a major European club by winning the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup.Two years later the Turkish national team finished third in the 2002 World Cup Finals in Japan and South Korea.Other mainstream sports such as basketball, volleyball and motorsports (following the inclusion of Istanbul Park on the Formula 1 racing calendar) have also become popular recently.The men's national basketball team finished second in Eurobasket 2001 while Efes Pilsen S.K. won the Korac Cup in 1996, finished second in the European Cup of 1993, and made it to the Final Four of Euroleague and Suproleague in 2000 and 2001.Women's volleyball teams such as Eczacıbaşı and Vakıfbank Güneş Sigorta have been the most successful by far in any team sport,winning numerous European championship titles and medals. Surfing,snowboarding, skateboarding, paragliding and other extreme sports are becoming more popular every year.The traditional Turkish national sport has been the Yağlı güreş (Oiled Wrestling) since Ottoman times. International wrestling styles governed by FILA such as Freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular, with many European, World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team.Another major sport in which the Turks have been internationally successful is weightlifting; as Turkish weightlifters, both male and female, have broken numerous world records and won several European,World and Olympic championship titles.Naim Süleymanoğlu and Halil Mutlu have achieved legendary status as one of the few weightlifters to have won three gold medals in three Olympics.
1. Istanbul :
Istanbul manages to merge its vast ancient past and hectic modern mega-city buzz with an aplomb not managed by many other cities. This is Turkey’s major metropolis. Straddling opposing shores of Europe and Asia, it is home to a population of about 15 million. Unsurprisingly, Istanbul is one of the world’s favorite city-break destinations. There are few other cities on Earth where you can visit this mind-boggling multitude of historic monuments from different eras. Just in its central old town core, it holds more world-class tourist attractions than some entire countries can count. You could spend weeks here and still find new things to see and interesting places to shop, but for first-time visitors, the historic center is where to concentrate your time. Here, you’ll find the city’s most famous grand Imperial building projects from both the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. The Blue Mosque, Hagia Sophia (Aya Sofya), Topkapi Palace, and the Grand Bazaar are the big four. Beyond these, though, there are Byzantine cisterns, more multi-domed and lavishly tiled mosques, Baroque palace architecture, and frescoed churches to discover. And history is only part of Istanbul’s charm. Don’t be lulled into thinking this city is just the sum of its grand past. Street life here has a buzzing, youthful vibe. The café and dining scene includes everything from reworked Ottoman palace dishes and regional specialties to modern Mediterranean and fusion flavors. And with big players such as the Istanbul Modern and ARTER, the contemporary art scene is thriving.
2. Antalya :
Turkey’s premier Mediterranean resort is also an important center of commerce with a population of 1.2 million, so there is plenty of cosmopolitan buzz to add to its beach life. Antalya is one of the best places to visit in Turkey if you want to combine sun and sand with city amenities on hand. Laid-back beach life is found at both Konyaalti beach and Lara beach, but the city’s vibrant and varied café and restaurant scene is still easily on tap. With the Kaleiçi district at Antalya’s core, you have one of Turkey’s best-preserved old towns within easy reach for days when it’s time to do more than top up your tan. This neighborhood of Ottoman-period mansions leading down to a Roman-era harbor, with views that swoop across the jagged, mountainous coastline, provides enough tourist attractions in itself even if you’re not interested in having the beach on hand. If the sights within the city aren’t enough, Antalya also sits on the doorstep of a whole swag of Turkey’s major archaeological sites. With the famed Classical-era ruins of Aspendos, Perge, Side, and Termessos just day trip hops from town, you’d be hard-pressed to find a beach town with more to offer.
3. Bursa :
The original capital of the Ottoman Empire, Bursa today is a vast, rambling, modern city, home to two million. Most visitors will want to concentrate their sightseeing in the city’s central districts. The 20-domed Grand Mosque, exuberantly tiled interiors of both the Yesil Mosque and Tomb, and the colorfully decorated mausoleums of the first Ottoman Sultans within the Muradiye Complex are the most famous monuments from Bursa’s imperial reign. At the city’s core is the massive Covered Market, where multiple hans (caravanserais) and bedestens (warehouses) showcase Bursa’s heritage as a Silk Route trading point. Don’t miss the Koza Han with its numerous silk shops still continuing the tradition. For some travelers though, all this heritage on display is secondary. Foodies are here to dine on Iskender kebab in the city where it was invented. Nearly every restaurant in town offers this up as their headline dish but for the real deal, beeline to Kebapçi Iskender where it was first created.
4. Sanliurfa :
Claimed birthplace of the Prophet Abraham and once the Byzantine city of Edessa, Sanliurfa has always been one of the most interesting stops in Turkey’s southeast. In the last few years, as the archaeological site of Göbeklitepe has been opened up to tourism, a new wave of visitors have also flocked here. These Neolithic monoliths, sitting just on the city outskirts, were anointed with UNESCO World Heritage status in 2019. In the city center itself, a massive and thoroughly contemporary new Archaeological Museum provides one of Turkey’s most fascinating museum experiences, thoroughly complementing the site by devoting a large swath of its space to exhibits from both Göbeklitepe and the Sanliurfa region’s importance in early human history. Even without these two recent major tourist attractions though, Sanliurfa has plenty for visitors to unpack. The old town district’s bazaar is a busy muddle, where traditional craft workshops and market produce stalls huddle amid skinny alleys and where the courtyards of old caravanserais are now put to use as atmospheric open-air cafés. Leading out from the old town district, at the city’s very heart, is leafy Gölbasi park. This major pilgrimage area plays center stage in the city’s local lore, with historic mosques built on sites important to the story of Abraham, and fish ponds filled with sacred carp.
5. Izmir :
This provincial capital, and Turkey’s third biggest center, with a population of 2.9 million, is a big-city base for the nearby sites of Ephesus and Pergamum, which are both day-tripping distance. Spreading along the Aegean waterfront, Izmir today is feted as one of Turkey’s most lively metropolitan centers. Its youthful, commercial buzz and modern façade hides a vast history. Izmir was once Smyrna, the most important port town along this coastline from the Roman period up to the end of the Ottoman era. Along with Alexandria in Egypt, it was feted for centuries as a Mediterranean cosmopolitan hub, where Turks, Greeks, Jews, and Armenians all thrived. A catastrophic fire at the end of the Turkish War for Independence in 1922 wiped out much of Izmir’s historic neighborhoods, but a glimpse of its storied past can still be found in the vast Kemeralti Market district snug in the city core. Here, Ottoman warehouses now house craft workshops, caravanserais are converted to coffee houses, and alleyway stalls are piled high with produce and household goods.
6. Konya :
The ornately tiled Mevlana Museum, home to the tomb of 13th-century Sufi poet and preacher Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, has made this old Seljuk capital a major stop for any traveler heading east from the Mediterranean coast. Most visitors time their trip to watch a performance by the whirling dervishes (twice weekly in summer; once a week the rest of year) in the birthplace of this Mevlevi Sufi sect. Konya’s Sufi connection has made its tourism name but there are plenty of things to do beyond the dervishes. The central city is crammed with the surviving mosques and monuments from Konya’s grand era as Seljuk capital in the 13th century. Some, such as the Karatay Medresesi, have been painstakingly restored and turned into interesting museums that highlight the artistic accomplishments of the Seljuk era. Outside the city itself, the stark surrounding plains are home to a host of attractions that will convince history-minded travelers to linger another night in town. Top of the list is the settlement mound of Çatalhöyük, where archaeologists unearthed one of the world’s largest Neolithic villages.
7. Fethiye :
With its spectacular harbor front setting, this small city of 100,000 is one of Turkey’s most popular places to visit along the Mediterranean coast. Fethiye is a major yachting destination. There are bundles of sailing activities on offer, from daily group boat tours to multi-day private yacht hire. The harbor here is also the departure point for Turkey’s most famous sailing itinerary: the three-night Blue Cruise, which takes in some of the best coastal panoramas along this stretch of coast. Although Fethiye is primarily all about the water, its location is also perfect for launching out to explore the vast amount of ruins hidden in the surrounding lush forested hills. The Classical-era Lycian ruins of UNESCO World Heritage-listed Xanthos and Letoön are just two of the major archaeological sites within day-tripping distance. If, though, you are simply focused on sun and sea, this is the nearest city base for the famed beaches of Ölüdeniz, with its paragliding and boat trips, and Butterfly Valley.
8. Gaziantep :
Turkey’s baklava center needs no introduction to foodie travelers. Gaziantep’s sweet treats are famed throughout the country. There’s plenty to discover beyond the sugar-hit though. One of the prime tourist attractions is the Gaziantep Zeugma Mosaic Museum. Highly contemporary and beautifully conceived, the museum holds one of the world’s most important collections of Roman period mosaic floor art, all rescued from the nearby Belkis-Zeugma archaeological site before it was submerged under the waters of the Birecik Dam. One of the real pleasures of Gaziantep is wandering the old town area. Its multitude of baklava shops and compact bazaar alleys, stuffed full of traditional craftwork stores and historic coffee houses, could consume a full day of your time.
9. Ankara :
Turkey’s capital, and the second biggest city in the country, with a population of five million, is slap in the center of the country. Ankara is a sprawling center of business and industry but there are two big reasons to add it into your Turkey tour. Beeline here to visit the best museum in the country. The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations holds an unparalleled collection of artifacts from archaeological sites across the country, covering the Neolithic through to the Iron Age. If you want to understand the vast breadth of Turkey’s ancient history, this is the best place in the country. Ankara’s other major attraction, and a modern pilgrimage site, is the Anitkabir. This hilltop complex holds the mausoleum of Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey. Come here to understand how this modern nation was forged in the years after World War I. Ankara is also the nearest base to the ruins of the Hittite capital of Hattusa, the Bronze Age Empire, which once ruled over much of Anatolia, and the Iron Age site of Gordion, where Alexander the Great cut the Gordion knot.
10. Eskisehir :
This major university center is all about café culture, gardens, and art. Full of youthful energy and buzz, Eskisehir is a big hit with local families who day trip here on summer weekends for gondola rides on the river, picnicking in the parks, and strolling the small old town district of Odunpazari. Odunpazari is also where you’ll find Eskisehir’s newest attraction. The OMM (Odunpazari Modern Museum) art gallery holds a permanent collection of modern art, comprising sculpture and installations as well as paintings, and hosts temporary exhibitions of big names in the contemporary art scene. It’s the most important private art gallery outside of Istanbul. Eskisehir used to be bypassed by many travelers, but the new high-speed train lines connecting Istanbul with Ankara and Konya have made Eskisehir (a station on both lines) a popular stop off for travelers heading inland.
Current Climate :
This page presents Turkey's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit. Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page. Observed, historical data is produced by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia. Data is presented at a 0.5º x 0.5º (50km x 50km) resolution.
Turkey is situated between the subtropical zone and temperate zone. The climate zones observed in Turkey are the Mediterranean Climate where summers are hot and dry and the winters are mild and rainy; the Black Sea Climate where summers are cool and winters are warm in the coastal area and snowy and cold at the higher parts; the Terrestrial Climate where temperature differences between summer and winter and day and night are large, and the Marmara Climate showing the characteristics of a climate transition between the Terrestrial, Black Sea and Mediterranean climates. Turkey receives most of its rainfall in winter and spring. In summer, the amount of precipitation decreases while the temperature and evaporation increases. Annual long-term mean precipitation is 574 mm. Meanwhile, the number of meteorological extreme events has increased particularly since 2000 (1981 – 2017).
Temperature :
An upward trend in annual temperature has been observed from 1994 onwards, except for 1997 and 2011. 2010 was the warmest year. The average temperature increased from 13.2°C in 1971 – 2000 period to 13.5°C between 1981 and 2010.
Precipitation :
regular precipitation was experienced from 1981 – 2017.
Turkish Food Culture and Cuisine
Turkish cuisine is one of the most appetizing and rich cuisines of the world, and Turkish people are known to be quite passionate about food. Diversity and the full flavor makes the Turkish cuisine worldwide famous which draws influences from its rich history and each region in the country today praises its own specialities. The richness of Turkish cuisine is based on several factors: Variety of products cultivated on the lands of Asia and Anatolia, numerous cultural interactions in history, the palace kitchens of Seljuk and Ottoman empires and geographical conditions that shaped the character of Turkish culinary culture.
The Turkish art of cooking has a long and deep-rooted past and its cuisine varies across the country. The culinary culture of Istanbul, Bursa, Izmir region inherits many elements of vast Ottoman cuisine. The Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean cuisines are rich in vegetables, fresh herbs and fish. Olive oil is most widely used.
Black Sea region’s cuisine uses fish extensively, especially the Black Sea anchovy (hamsi). It’s influenced by Balkan and Slavic cuisine and includes maize dishes.
The cuisine of the southeast—Urfa, Gaziantep and Adana—is famous for its kebabs and dough-based desserts such as baklava, kadayıf and künefe.
Central Anatolia has it’s own specialties, such as keşkek, mantı and gözleme.
İstanbul, however, is the city where almost all kind of cuisines can be tasted, due to its multicultural structure of a metropolis.
Particularly Beyoğlu, Sultanahmet and Kadıköy are the districts for heavenly food. Aside from Western food presented amply as an alternative, there are numerous eateries specialized in their fields for a very long time such as comfort food restaurants, esnaf lokantası, i.e. tradesman’s restaurants, and sea-food restaurants.
Key ingredients being primarily meat, vegetable and legumes, Turkish meals are generally soupy, consisting of some kind of stew or stock. Hence, bread consumption tends to be way too much among Turks. Turkish kebabs, döner kebab, Turkish ravioli and some eggplant dishes are the trademarks of Turkish cookery. There are over 200 dishes made from eggplant.
Breakfast is crucial part of meal for Turks. Although it varies regionally, Turkish breakfast is the healthiest, rich in nutrients and the most delicious. A lot of green, tomatoes (preferrably in summer), cucumber and pepper are eaten during breakfast along with feta cheese, egg, olives, honey and cream of milk. Multi-grain village bread, corn bread and simit, Turkish sesame donut or Turkish bagel are the preferred breakfast components. Especially Sunday breakfasts turn into a convivial social gatherings with added ingredients and last longer than week-in breakfast.
Turkish kebabs are the main meat dish with a great variety of cooking methods. Under the names of Döner Kebab, Adana Kebab, Bursa Kebab, Ali Nazik and İskender. Kebabs have various cooking methods depending on the ingredients and the way of cooking, generally served with rice, bulgur rice and greens.
The origin of döner kebab goes back to Central Asia where it was known as Lüle Kebab. Its name was also mentioned in Anatolian travel memoirs of the 18th century.
Another meat specialty is köfte, meatballs, its name derived from a Persian word, kufte. It was adopted into Turkish cuisine in the 13th century. There are many versions of meatballs, the technique of cooking differ by the region. A large variety of meatballs, more than 200 kinds, are known in Turkey.
Lahmacun, a thin flat bread covered with a layer of spiced minced meat, is another popular takeaway food, generally accompanied with ayran, a buttermilk drink.
Bean soup and rice, reputably, are the indispensable meal duo among other Turkish foods. Mostly served in soup form on top of rice, rich in carbs and protein, this is the popular menu in most restaurants for Turkish people.
The cuisines of Aegean and Mediterranean are mostly olive oil based cold dishes as main course or starters. Especially dolma (stuffed bell peppers, zucchini etc.), barbunya pilaki (red bean salad with olive oil), deniz börülcesi (seasonal samphire salad) are the ‘must taste’ specialties.
Makarna (macaroni) is almost similar to pasta of Italian cuisine. Turkish homemade pasta is called erişte, prepared with walnuts, Feta cheese or various sauces.
There are more than 300 kinds of soup in the Turkish cuisine. The basic ingredient of soup is yoghurt. A Turkish contribution to the world, sweet or sour yoghurt became prominent ingredient in soups. Seafood and entrails are often used in Turkish soups. İşkembe çorbası (tripe soup) is the best remedy for alcohol hangover. Soups made with slender rockfish, haddock or any other fish are all categorized as “fish soup.”
Turkish pastries are mostly milk-based or dough-based desserts. Sweet pastries, mainly baklava, are soaked in syrup. Baklava, sütlü nuriye, ekmek kadayıfı are among the most popular desserts. Fırında Sütlaç, keşkül and profiterole are the most favorite Turkish milk-based desserts. Künefe, made from shredded wheat with a layer of melted mozzarella-like cheese and syrup, can be easily found in Istanbul even though it is a Southern specialty pastry.
Tea is a sine qua non drink for any Turk. Tea is served during breakfast and offered almost all day long. Especially, if you are invited to a store or an office, tea is ordered right away. Turkish Coffee after meals is also part of a Turk’s daily habits.
Ayran is the most common cold beverage made from yoghurt mixed with water and salt. Sometimes a piece of fresh mint is added. It is an ideal drink during hot summer days, bottled, packed or home made from vendors.
Virtually the whole of Turkey is well covered by public transport, including long-distance buses, domestic flights, minibuses and ferries. The aged train network is being overhauled, with new high-speed lines linking the capital Ankara with İstanbul, Konya and Sivas. Late booking is the norm for public transport users in Turkey, but reserve well in advance for major public holidays – especially for flights and trains. Car rental rates are reasonable if you look around, and low-season rentals usually considerably cheaper than in high season.
By train
Turkey’s train network is run by Turkish State Railways (TCDD; w tcdd.gov.tr). Unfortunately, a major overhaul of the network means there is much current uncertainty as to which trains are operational. As an example, until work is completed on the new high-speed line between İstanbul and Ankara, scheduled for 2015, the only option for rail travellers is to take the bus to Eskişehir and then the high-speed train onto Ankara (and vice versa). The service between İstanbul and Konya has been cancelled, though it is still possible to reach İzmir by rail by taking the high-speed ferry from Yenikapı and the 6 Eylül Ekspres onto İzmir from Bandirma. A useful new high-speed service also links Ankara with Konya.
Until the situation becomes clearer, in general trains are probably best used to reach provincial centres such as Adana, Kayseri, Erzerum, Kars and Diyarbakır from Ankara. These trains are slow because the mountainous terrain has resulted in circuitous routes. As a result, journeys can sometimes take double the time by road. The advantages are the chance to stretch your legs, unwind and watch the scenery unfold at leisure. To get accurate schedule information, especially with the plethora of delays and re-schedulings caused by the network overhaul, go to the station in person, scan the placards and then confirm departures with staff. Several choices of seats are available on most routes, including first-class, reclining Pullman seats; first-class standard seats (usually in a six-seater compartment) and second-class seats (generally in an eight-seater compartment). For long distances, though, it’s advisable to get a sleeper. Cheapest are küşetli (couchettes), with either four or six bunks in a compartment depending on the route, and two-bedded yataklı (sleeping-cars) with a basin, soap, towel and air conditioning. All yataklı beds come with sheets, pillows and blankets provided, as do örtülü küşetli beds; for standard küşetli beds you’ll need to bring your own bedding. For maximum privacy, and for women travelling without male companions, it’s probably best to book a yataklı berth to avoid having to share. There are always (usually helpful but tip expected) porters on hand to make up beds. Note that all beds fold away in the day to convert the compartment into a seating area.
All long-distance services should have a licensed büfe wagon, offering simple meals at surprisingly reasonable prices, but it’s as well to check in advance (note that most wayside stations offer some sort of snacks). On major train routes it’s essential to reserve ahead, but unfortunately this cannot be done earlier than two weeks in advance – and it’s almost impossible to arrange sleeper facilities from a station that’s not your start point. It’s theoretically possible to book online, but the English version of TCDD’s website is so hard to use that you’d be brave to risk it (rail site w seat61.com has a step-by-step guide on this). Probably the best option for most travellers, especially for long-distance train travel, is to buy tickets from a reputable travel agency, though that incurs a small supplement.
Fares and passes
To give some idea of prices, a pullman seat for the lengthy 28hr, 1076km journey from Ankara to Kars (close to the Armenian border) costs TL35.5, while a bed in a two-berth yataklı compartment costs TL82.5. An economy seat on the Yüksek Hızlı Tren (High-Speed Train) for the 233km journey between İstanbul and Eskişehir costs TL25, and a pullman seat on the Bandirma to İzmir (334km) train is TL20. Buying a return ticket brings the fare down by twenty percent, while foreign students (with appropriate ID) and children also get twenty percent off. InterRail passes are valid, though a better bet for Turkey-only travel is the one-month TrenTur card (available at major stations) which costs TL175 a month for unlimited second-class travel, or TL550 for any class of sleeping car.
By long-distance bus
Long-distance buses are a key part of the Turkish travel experience and, despite keen competition from domestic flights and relatively high road accident rates, look set to remain so. Major otogars (bus stations) are veritable hives of activity, with dozens of separate companies vying for business and a plethora of places to eat, drink, souvenir shop or have your shoes shined.
The vehicles used by many companies are luxurious coaches, complete with air conditioning, though without on-board toilets. Journeys are sometimes accompanied by loud Turkish music or film soundtracks, though increasingly the better (and more expensive) companies use coaches with aeroplane-style screens set in the back of the seat in front, along with headsets. There’s a choice of TV channels and films, though very seldom in English. Several companies also have free wi-fi aboard, which is of far more use to the non-Turkish-speaking traveller. Traditional services remain, however, with attendants dishing out free drinking water and cologne for freshening up. In addition, most companies serve free coffee/tea/soft drinks and cakes on board. Every couple of hours or so there will be a fifteen-minute rest stop (mola) for tea, as well as less frequent half-hour pauses for meals at purpose-built roadside cafeterias.
Bus companies are private concerns and there’s no comprehensive national bus timetable, although individual companies often provide their own. Prices vary considerably between top- and bottom-drawer companies, though convenience of departure and on-board service are equally important criteria. If in doubt, inspect the vehicle out in the loading bay (peron in Turkish) and ask at the ticket office how long the trip will take
Bear in mind that long-haul journeys (over 10hr) generally take place at night, and that because of rest stops buses never cover more than 60km per hour on average. As a broad example of fares, İstanbul–Antalya (a 450km trip) costs around TL45 with a standard bus company, TL60 with a premium company. The 1240km journey from İstanbul to Hopa, on the Black Sea near the Georgia border, costs TL85 with a premium company.
Buying tickets
Most bus companies have ticket booths both at the otogars (bus terminals) and in the city centre. One of the big advantages of coach over plane travel is that, national holidays apart, you can usually just turn up at the bus station and find a seat. If you do this it’s worth checking out various companies to see which offers the best price and most convenient departure – touts that work for particular companies will not necessarily take you to the office of the company that has the cheapest or soonest departure.
Unacquainted women and men are not usually allowed to sit next to each other, and you may be asked to switch your assigned seat to accommodate this convention. If you buy your ticket at a sales office in the centre of town, ask about free servis (service) transfer buses to the otogar, especially if (as most now are) it’s located a few kilometres out. These buses will often also take passengers from otogars into town centres, but that system is more erratic. Of the country’s two premium coach companies, Ulusoy (w ulusoy.com.tr) and Varan , Ulusoy offer by far the most comprehensive network. Their seats are more comfortable than most and they don’t segregate single passengers by sex. Both have online booking systems in English. Kamil Koç and Pamukkale are two of the best standard outfits, though neither has online systems in English.
By dolmus
A dolmuş (literally “stuffed”) refers to a car or small van (minibüs in Turkish) that runs along set routes, picking passengers up (give a normal taxi hand signal) and dropping them off along the way (just say inecek var or müsait bir yerde to be set down). Few cities have car-type dolmuşes left – these include Bursa and Trabzon. On busy urban routes it’s better to take the dolmuş from the start of its run, at a stand marked by a blue sign with a black-on-white-field “D”, sometimes with the destination indicated – though usually you’ll have to ask to learn the eventual destination, or look at the dolmuş’ windscreen placard. The fare is invariably a flat rate (usually TL2), making it very good value for cross-city journeys, not so great for a one-stop hop. In some cities (eg Antalya) dolmuşes have been banned because pulling in at random is both dangerous and slows traffic. Locals, confusingly, still refer to the midibuses that replaced them, and stop only at fixed points, as dolmuşes.
Inter-town and village services are always provided by twelve- or fifteen-seater minibuses, and in these instances the term “dolmuş” is seldom used. For the remotest villages there will only be two services a day: to the nearest large town in the morning and back to the village in mid-afternoon. Generally, though, minibuses run constantly between 7am or 8am and 7pm in summer, stopping at sunset in winter or extending until 10pm or 11pm (or even later) near popular resorts.
By city bus and taxi
In larger towns, the main means of transport are city buses, which usually accept only pre-purchased tickets available from kiosks near the main terminals, newsagents, or from kerbside touts (at slightly inflated prices). This is certainly the case in İstanbul, where you have to use a pre-purchased token (jeton) or a smart travel card (İstanbul Kart). In some cities, such as Antalya, it’s still possible to pay on the bus.
Yellow city taxis are everywhere, with ranks at appropriate places. Hailing one in the street is the best way to get a cab, but in suburban areas you can call them from useful street-corner telephones; sometimes you just press a buzzer and wait for a cab to turn up. City cabs all have working, digital-display meters and fares are reasonable. Each town sets its own rates, which includes the minimum charge and a unit charge for the distance covered. The main problem with using a cab is that few drivers – even in tourist areas – speak much English, so you may have to write down your destination on a piece of paper. Overcharging of foreigners in İstanbul and major resorts is, unfortunately, not uncommon – make sure that the driver turns his meter on and (trickier) that he doesn’t take you all around the houses to reach your destination.
By car
While the excellent intercity bus network makes travel between major centres easy, having a car allows you to visit off-the-beaten-track sites. But be warned – the standard of driving in Turkey is often both poor and aggressive and the enforcement of traffic rules arbitrary, all factors that have led to the high road accident rate with over four thousand fatalities per year. Driving during public holidays, especially the religious Şeker and Kurban bayrams, and an hour or so prior to the iftar (fast-breaking meal) during Ramadan, is especially dangerous.
Rules of the road : You drive on the right, and yield to those approaching from the right. Speed limits are 50km/h within towns (40km/h if towing a trailer or caravan); open road limits are 90km/h for cars, 80km/h for vans (70km/h if towing something); motorways (otoyol in Turkish), 120km/h for cars, 100km/h for vans and small trucks. Drink-driving laws are in line with those of the European Union – 50mg of alcohol per 100ml of blood – and drink-driving carries a fine of TL590. Even so, drink-driving is a major problem; in 2010, almost 140,000 Turkish drivers had their licences seized for the offence. Front seat belts are mandatory and it’s a fineable (TL66) offence not to buckle up – though few drivers do.
Traffic control points at the approaches to major cities are common. You’ll probably be waved through simply upon showing your foreign ID, especially if it’s a rental car. Make sure the rental company provides the insurance certificate, the pollution compliance certificate (eksoz muayene tasdiknamesi), and the vehicle registration, or certified copies thereof.
Speeding fines, levied on a sliding scale according to how far above the limit you were, are heavy, with penalties of up to TL300 (though there’s a considerable “discount” if the fine is paid within ten days). Usually you’ll be given a ticket, which you take to a designated bank to pay. Jumping a red light carries a fine of TL140.
If you have an accident serious enough to immobilize you and/or cause major damage to other people’s property, the traffic police will appear and administer alcohol tests to all drivers, results of which must also be submitted along with an official accident report (kaza raporu) in order to claim insurance cover. It used to be an offence to move a vehicle involved in a car crash before the police showed up, but if there is only minor damage it is now OK to do so providing you have exchanged details with the other driver.
Heed the signposted no-parking zones, especially in resorts, as towing is common and although the fines are not too heavy the hassle of finding the pound and negotiating language barriers is considerable. Generally, it’s wisest to patronize the covered (katlı) or open otoparks. In open car parks you may well be required to leave your keys so the attendant can move your car. If you leave your car in the street in some towns and cities, you may return to find a chit on your windscreen (typically TL5), to be paid to the roving attendant.
Road conditions : Road conditions have improved enormously over the last few years, with better surfaces and more and more dual carriageways. On both single and dual carriageways there’s usually a hard-shoulder area to the right of the driving lane, and often slower-moving vehicles pull into this to allow impatient drivers to overtake. Be very wary of doing this, especially at night, as you might find yourself ploughing into pedestrians or parked/broken-down vehicles. With continual road improvements being made countrywide, roadworks are often a (sometimes dangerous) nuisance – especially in the southeast. Sizeable archeological sites are usually marked by large white-on-brown-field signs, but side roads to minor sites or villages are often poorly signposted.
Typical hazards include drivers overtaking right, left and centre, failure to signal and huge trucks. Small-town driving hazards include suicidal pedestrians, horse-carts, speeding scooters and motorcycles (often with the entire family astride one vehicle) and tractors.
Why Learn Turkish?
Learning any new tongue is a challenge that can open up your mind to new perspectives and help you connect with all types of people across boundaries of land and language. When it comes to learning Turkish, these reasons are especially true.
To start, if you know the Turkish language, you open yourself up to a world of Turkish speakers. There are roughly 78 million people on Earth who speak Turkish as a first language, and millions who speak it to some degree as a second or third language.
You’ll obviously find Turkish all over Turkey, where it’s the official language and home to the vast majority of the language’s native speakers. But you might not know that there are whole populations of Turkish speakers scattered throughout Western and Central Europe in places like Germany, home to about 1.5 million Turkish migrants, and the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Switzerland and France. As you head a bit farther east, you’ll find Turkish speakers in places like Greece, Cyprus, Serbia, Albania, Macedonia and Romania. And there are also hundreds of thousands of Turkish speakers in the Middle East and Central and Western Asia in places like Iraq, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.
You might want to learn Turkish for its links to other world languages. Turkish, a Turkic language, is closely related to all of the other languages in the same family, like Azerbaijani, Uzbek, Kazakh, Turkmen, Kyrgyz and Uyghur, among dozens of other languages throughout Eastern Europe, Siberia and pockets of Central Asia. If you ever want to learn the other Turkic languages, there’s no doubt that if you learn Turkish, you’ll have a learning advantage right from the start, as the languages share similar vocabulary and grammar structures that make them somewhat mutually intelligible with one another!
Benefits Of Learning Turkish :
Picking up a new skill can help you express your creativity, stimulate your mind, and discover new sides of yourself along the way. Learning a new language like Turkish is no exception! Here are just a few of the many ways you can make a positive impact on your life if you learn Turkish.
Learn Turkish For Travel :
When the spirit of adventure strikes, don’t let language barriers hold you back. When you have Turkish in your back pocket, you have a passport to many new corners of the world. Learning Turkish not only means you’ll be able to navigate new cities by reading road signs, menus, and train tickets; it also lets you connect with the new people you meet there. It’s often said that the best way to explore a new place is through the eyes of a local, and learning Turkish lets you branch out of tourist hotspots and into the real world as the native speakers see it. Whether it’s the streets of Istanbul, the beaches of Çeşme or the caves of Cappadocia, you’ll be more equipped to venture off the beaten path and explore all the Turkish-speaking world has to offer when you have Turkish in your linguistic repertoire.
Live The Turkish Language Abroad :
Whether you’re looking to enroll at a foreign university and have a more alternative college experience, find a job at a hostel that lets you hit the tourist hotspots by day and work at night, or retire in a place with a slower pace of life, living abroad is hands down the best hands-on approach to getting the most immersive language experience possible. By placing yourself in an environment where you’re obligated to speak Turkish, you’ll fast-track your journey to fluency. Your life can take on new twists and turns when you move to an unfamiliar place, and there’s so much of the Turkish-speaking world to explore. When you learn Turkish, you open up a gateway to a robust, colorful, and novel life adventure!
Build Your Business Turkish Skills :
Today the world is more connected economically than ever before. The sweeping tides of globalization mean that companies and organizations today are operating across international borders and boundaries. If you’re a professional looking for ways to stay competitive and current in the global market, learning Turkish is a no-brainer for success. Learning the Turkish language is a fantastic way to connect with colleagues in other countries, score new clients, build strong relationships with Turkish-speaking partners and investors, and to show off the multicultural, international, and inclusive nature of your brand.
Use Language To Train Your Brain :
Building any new skill is a surefire way to expand your intellectual horizons. Learning Turkish is an especially sound way to keep your brain flexible and nimble, especially as you grow older. Picking up a new language involves making connections between words and what they represent, taking apart and putting together grammatical structures, spontaneously speaking and thinking on your feet, sticking with a challenge when it’s frustrating and confusing, and a whole lot of active listening. There are few better ways to exercise your mental muscles than by learning Turkish.
Immerse Yourself In Turkish Culture, Unfiltered :
Learning Turkish opens you up not only to a better understanding of the language itself but also of the arts and culture of the world that speaks it. To read the literature of decorated Turkish-speaking writers like Elif Shafak and Orhan Pamuk is to engage with the language in some of its most beautiful, melancholic and colorful expressions. Through the lens of Turkish you get a more active immersion in more contemporary Turkish-language media like podcasts, radio shows, audiobooks, and TV shows. The stories and recipes of culinary staples like shish kebabs, the dialogue of famous Turkish films from directors like Nuri Bilge Ceylan and Ertem Eğilmez and the lyrics of classic and popular Turkish songs by artists like Barış Manço, Zeki Müren and Sezen Aksu all become accessible to you when you learn the Turkish language. And if you’re from a family with Turkish-speaking elders and ancestors but you don’t know the language yourself, learning Turkish is an excellent way to connect with your heritage.


Applying for a residence permit in Turkey
All international students, regardless of their status, must register and obtain a Residence Permit (Ikamet Tezkeresi) from the Istanbul Provincial Immigration Administration Office within 10 days of entering Turkey.
You can be required at any time to show your Residence Permit.
Enrolled students apply online at the Ministry Of Interior Directorate General Of Migration Management website. After you have applied, you will also need to collect required documents and make a tax payment.
Applications for residence permits are processed by the Ministry Of Interior Directorate General Of Migration Management, NOT the University. The residence permit application is your responsibility.
1. Copies of the: Passport ,Visa/ Entry Stamp
2. Online Residence Permit Application Form3-) Four
3. (4) photos (biometric)
4. Original Valid Health Insurance Policy / Orijinal Geçerli Sağlık Sigorta Poliçesi
5. The payment receipt (Residence Permit Card fee) from Tax Office
6. Address declaration
There might be extra documents request by the Immigration Office
Student Visa
Obtaining a student visa before departing your home country is a requirement for form
registration as a student at a Turkish university. Therefore, students who come to Turkey
without a student visa will neither be allowed to register as a student at the university nor
receive a residency permit once in the country. Student candidates must keep in mind that
policies may be subject to change.
Based on the following program criteria can a student visa be obtained.
1. Internship Visa
2. Internship ERASMUS
3. Internship AISEC
4. Turkish Language Course
5. Purpose
6. Course Purpose
7. Education Purpose
8. Education in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Apartment Shopping
If you don’t speak Turkish, the first thing to do is to find a friend or a property agent who does. Turks generally go out of their way to help foreigners, and many business owners at least have someone nearby who speaks enough English to get the job done. However, everyone should always be prepared to negotiate.
Online Listings
By using the Turkish property listings, you will find better deals than you would on English-language websites directed at foreigners. See the External Links section for websites which have property listings. Some have English versions, and some don’t. If you check the listings daily, you may find a great place to live before anybody else does. And by printing out the listings you like, you’ll have handy information in hand for your apartment shopping trip
Property Agents
Property agents, or “emlak”, are plentiful in Turkey, and they come in all sizes. They are a handy resource to find quality properties. Visit several of them, since there is no central directory of properties for rent, and each agent will have different apartments available.
Turkish property agents get a commission for the properties they rent, equivalent to one month’s rent, paid by the renter. If an agent doesn’t have what you need but knows of another agent who does, and if you rent from the other agent, the two agents split the commission. For that reason, property agents will first show you their properties (sometimes including properties with characteristics you said you didn’t want) before they show you those of competitors.
If you find in the internet or newspaper listings that an attractive apartment is being advertised by a particular property agent, you can also ask that agent to show you the properties of other agents which you found in the listings. This can save you the time of making appointments and finding addresses.
Take a Stroll in the Area You May Like
Walking or driving around a neighborhood where you would like to live ls also a good way to find a place to live. Look for a sign which says “kiralik”, which means “for rent.” You’ll also see signs which say “satılık”, which means “for sale.” Another important term is “sahabinden” which means “from owner.” The name and telephone number of a property agency or the owner will be on the sign.
Always Pre-Inspect
Have a good look around the property to make sure everything is in good order. Include every detail in the contract, so the landlord can’t claim compensation from you when you move out. Some landlords can be very picky and will look for any excuse to retain part of the deposit.
If there is anything in the apartment you don’t want to stay and don’t intend to turn over to the landlord at the end of the lease, have the landlord remove it. Do not discard anything thinking the landlord will be okay with it. An old rickety set of shelves that you remove while occupying the premises may be later claimed by the landlord to be an antique given to him by a some beloved deceased relative and used to extort your deposit from you.
Previous renter will have removed everything which was not nailed down, and also Some Things That Were
You will find that any former Turkish tenants have taken everything but the kitchen sink. Even light fixtures may be removed, leaving a bare wire protruding from a hole in the ceiling. The water heater and other such fixtures will likely have been removed.
General Apartment Layout
In cities, all apartments have a similar layout. The kitchen and salon (living room) face the outside, and the bedrooms are on the inside. Typically there is a large master bedroom with the other bedrooms being smaller, sometimes much smaller. The washing machine goes in the bathroom. Use of electric clothes driers is rare but gaining in popularity, so there might not be room for a washer and a drier in the bathroom. Stacked washer and drier combination units are available for this purpose.
Turks like balconies. You might find that even your kitchen and bedroom have a balcony. Balconies are usually where clothes are dried, either on lines attached to the building walls or on collapsible clothes drying racks that are widely available.
No Closet Space
Many Turkish apartments don’t have closets. So you will have to buy a dresser/wardrobe to store your clothes
The Landlord
Important! When you apply for a residence permit, the Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü (Directorate General of Migration Management, or DGMM), will require a copy of your landlord’s identification card as part of the documentation you need to prove you have an address. So make sure the landlord understands this and is willing to provide one.
Be Prepared for Negotiation
Once you find a place that you like and can afford, try to negotiate the rent to a lower price. A few minutes of haggling may save you a lot of money. Once you reach an agreement, you will sign the rental contract
The Rental Contract
Property rental contracts in Turkey are rather standard and can be bought in a stationery store. But make sure you have someone translate it for you, so you know exactly what you are signing.
The typical Turkish rental contract is a four-page document (one large page folded in half). On the contract’s pages are the following:
Page 1: Landlord and renter personal information and the terms of the rental, such as duration and the amount of rent.
Pages 2 and 3: Covers the terms of the rental agreement.
Page 4: A record of payments. Each time you pay, you record the payment amount and date, and sign it with your landlord. If you deposit the rent into the landlord’s bank account, have the bank add a note that the payment is for rent (kira). Save the deposit receipt. This bank deposit receipt can also serve as proof of payment.
Additional Agreements: If you make any additional agreements with the landlord, make sure they are in the contract, because your friendly and amiable landlord may not be so lenient later
Terminating the Contract
According to the Turkish code of obligations, you must provide 15 days’ notice, in writing (translated to Turkish) before the anniversary date of the contract if you want to terminate it. If you don’t do this, the contract will automatically renew for the period set in the contract (as in another year) and you will be legally bound to pay the extra year’s rent whether you are living there or not. When you deliver written notice, take two copies. Sign both and also have the landlord sign both. Keep one copy as proof of notice.
Some tenants think they can just forfeit the deposit and vacate the property any time they want. This is not so, and a landlord can take you to court, if he or she wants to go through the trouble, and successfully sue you for the remaining balance due on the contract. If you think you might need to vacate the property some time in the middle of the contract, have a “get out early” clause written in to the contract to protect yourself. If you want to renew the contract on a monthly basis, make the new contract so it expires in one month. In that case it will automatically renew every month (instead of every year).
Monthly Building/Site Maintance Fees “Aydat, the Kapıcı, and Yönetici”
Aydat. It is a monthly payment which covers common area lighting, cleaning, elevator maintenance, and the salary of the kapıcı, if there is one.
The kapıcı looks after the building and maintains it. He will almost always live on the ground floor of the apartment. He may also do additional duties like paying your utility bills, getting you a loaf of bread and a paper in the morning, and even fixing things in your house for a small fee. The main thing you would need to be careful of when dealing with the kapıcı is asking him to do things which are beyond his expertise. For example, your kapıcı is not a car mechanic (if he could fix cars, he wouldn’t be a kapıcı!). For work which requires a professional, such as electrical work, hire a professional
The yönetici is a resident who collects the aydat and makes the required payments.
The landlord will sometimes keep the utilities in his or her name, since there is no penalty or impact on one’s credit rating for non-payment. The utility is simply shut off, and a fine is paid to restore it. If you get the utilities in your name, you can pay them at various banks or at the Turkish post office (PTT). On the back of your utility bills is a list of places where you can pay them. Some of the banks only take these payments in the morning or afternoon hours, depending on their policy. The water bill needs to be paid at the water department at the belediye, or municipality.
You can have your utility bills automatically paid by your Turkish bank account. To do this, go to your bank and take your utility bills with you, so they can arrange for automatic payments. You can also give the bills and the required cash to your kapıcı and have them pay them for you-this is a common practice in Turkish apartment complexes.
Turkey has a well-established healthcare sector with many Turkish doctors and dentists who speak English, Arabic, French and more particularly in the major hospitals. Many Turkish hospitals have the newest technology with highly experienced doctors. All hospitals have an emergency room that is open 24 hours a day. Assigned pharmacies are available on weekends and evenings as well.
It is a requirement for all international students to have health coverage during their stay in Turkey. If your health insurance ends during your stay, you must renew your insurance policy and inform the immigration office immediately. Is it necessary to have Health Insuranc
Yes, all students must obtain health insurance in Turkey. This is the compulsory health insurance.
Where can I get the compulsory health insurance?
Study in Turkey’s partner, S’aide has the best prices regarding the required health insurance.
Why is S’aide Compulsory Health Insurance the best coverage?
S’aide offers the initial option of compulsory coverage in accordance with the regulations set by the immigration office.
This compulsory Insurance is required for below purposes :
Registration to the University
To obtain your residence permit
Your Compulsory Health Insurance covers your treatment from the hospitals which are in agreement with the Insurance Institutions.
Working While Studying
In accordance to a private university, they allow graduate students with full scholarships to work and can provide assistantships for students in exchange for this scholarship to work as researcher. Undergraduate students will often find opportunities to work in a part-time job, according to their course schedules and the university directives. However, you must keep in mind that a student resident permit does not give a student permission to work. There are different types of work permits such as short-term, perpetual, independent work and are given by General Directorate of International Labour. All in all, International students, unfortunately, have no legal right to work either in public or private offices.
Language is not only major obstacle to get a temporary job. There are universities and departments within universities whose language of instruction is English or where English is the most common language. Some private universities were established as English-speaking universities, and they are now trying to compete with public universities to attract top international academic staff and researchers. There are also research institutions which provide teaching in French and German.
In addition, most foundation universities recruit Master’s and PhD level students on a full scholarship scheme. Sometimes full scholarships might require international students assisting some professors on certain tasks such as teaching, doing research or preparing statistics etc. In all these cases, there is no requirement on international academics or students to learn and teach in Turkish.
Working After Studying
If you want to work in Turkey after studying, there are not as many options as you might hope, especially if you don’t speak Turkish, and many of them pay very poorly, comparing to the EU countries, Canada or the USA. However, there might be surprising opportunities present in the Turkish market. So, you can’t know them exist before searching for it.
The first thing to do is to search your job prospects on internet. You should have a very well-prepared resume that could tell anything about you even if you are not physically there. Many Turkish companies speak English, some speak German, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Russian etc. You hear from them with an invitation for an interview.
Some of the best paid and most professional works in Turkey are in the various embassies, consulates and non-governmental organizations. But the competition is always intense.
One possibility is to teach your native language at a language school or on a private tuition. There is a great hunger for English language teaching in Turkey which means that this sort of work is easy to find. However, the best paid jobs with the best conditions go to people with a degree and proper TESOL, TEFL, CELTA or TOIEC qualifications. The best thing to do is to take a relevant course.
If you find a job while in Turkey, you may have to leave the country to apply for a work permit and then come back in again.
Employment in Turkey is mainly governed by Turkish Labor Law and Trade Union Law. Working permits are granted by The Ministry of Labor. After finding a job at a Turkish company, the company should apply for the working permit on behalf of the foreigner. There is no guarantee that the Ministry will provide the foreigner with a working permit.
In the meantime, most work permits are issued initially for one year. When they are extended, the new permit is usually for three years, and then for six years. If you have been a resident of Turkey for eight years and have had a work permit for six of them, you should then be able to get a permanent work permit.